The Safavids controlled the land in these current day countries. According to R. M. Savory, “Salim’s plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring. The major problem was that the Ottomans and the Safavids were bitter enemies! Travelling was valued only for the specific purpose of getting from one place to another, not interesting them self in seeing new places and experiencing different cultures. It was the beginning of the East India Company’s long-running interest in Iran.[80]. Why are the Shi'a and Sunni Muslims enemies? Social classes, kept each class away from each other. They correctly identified the three key points to control all seaborne trade between Asia and Europe: The Gulf of Aden, The Persian Gulf and the Straits of Malacca by cutting off and controlling these strategic locations with high taxation. Q. First he sued for peace in 1590 with the Ottomans giving away territory in the north-west. In History. Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imam Mosque (Masjid-e Imami) the Lutfallah Mosque and the Royal Palace. The 150-year tug-of-war accentuated the Sunni and Shi’a rift in Iraq. Their temperament is open and leans towards sensual pleasure and self-indulgence, which makes them pay little attention to economy or business. Tabriz was the center of this industry. The Ilkhanid ruler Öljaitüconverted to Twelver Shiism in the 13th century. Past and present contact between Russia and Iran have long been complicatedly multi-faceted; often wavering between collaboration and rivalry. [72], Due to his obsessive fear of assassination, Shah Abbas either put to death or blinded any member of his family who aroused his suspicion. In the 16th century, the Turcophone Safavid family of Ardabil in Azerbaijan, probably of Turkicized Iranian, origin, conquered Iran and established Turkic, the language of the court and the military, as a high-status vernacular and a widespread contact language, influencing spoken Persian, while written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content. Shāh Tahmāsp, the young governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismāil in 1524, when he was ten years and three months old. Safavid Empire. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Buwayhids, who were of the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia, ruled in Fars, Isfahan and Baghdad. The two parties with their witnesses pleaded their respective cases, usually without any counsel, and the judge would pass his judgment after the first or second hearing. Henceforth a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin, was established delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, a border which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. Abbas I built a new city next to the ancient Persian one. Sultan Husayn (1694–1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance. Thus Abbas I was able to break the dependence on the Qizilbash for military might and therefore was able to centralize control. This system avoided an entrenched aristocracy or a cast society. Succeeded by. The Safavid order soon gained great influence in the city of Ardabil and Hamdullah Mustaufi noted that most of the people of Ardabil were followers of Safi al-Din. [23], In addition, Tahmasp must be credited for the revival of the fine arts, which flourished under his patronage and were brought to the pitch of perfection. It rejected the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts and believed that only the Quran, hadith, (prophetic sayings and recorded opinions of the Imams) and consensus should be used as sources to derive verdicts (fatāwā). The epic Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”), a stellar example of manuscript illumination and calligraphy, was made during Shah Tahmasp’s reign. However, a mutiny among his officers who refused to spend the winter at Tabriz forced him to withdraw across territory laid waste by the Safavid forces, eight days later”. The ottomans were Sunni Muslims,the Safavids Shia Muslims.They were therefore enemies,and fought several wars in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to Kurdish dignitary, Firuz Shah Zarin-Kulah. Get an answer for 'What are the differences between the Ottoman and Safavid empires in terms of government and religion?' [92], Nevertheless, the Persian society during the Safavids was that of a hierarchy, with the Shah at the apex of the hierarchical pyramid, the common people, merchants and peasants at the base, and the aristocrats in between. The Safavid military became a force to be reckoned with. Martha’s mother Theodora—better known as Despina Khatun[46]—was a Pontic Greek princess, the daughter of the Grand KomnenosJohn IV of Trebizond. What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran’s position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. Unlike Usulis, Akhbari did and do not follow marjas who practice ijtihad. And since the Safavid society was meritocratic, and successions seldom were made on the basis of heritage, this meant that government offices constantly felt the pressure of being under surveillance and had to make sure they governed in the best interest of their leader, and not merely their own. Pretty much everything you need to know about the Safavid Dynasty revolves around one of two things: 1. The Safavids were a dynastic family that ruled over modern-day Iran. Much of the cash revenue came not so much from what could be sold abroad, as from the custom charges and transit dues levied on goods passing through the country. [41][42] In terms of identity, it should be noted that the authority of the Safavids were religiously based and they based their legitimacy on being direct male descendants of the Ali,[43] the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and the first Shi’ite Imam. [50] Shah Ismail’s background is disputed: the language he used is not identical with that of his “race” or “nationality” and he was bilingual from birth. [66] Shah Abbas continued this program and greatly expanded the ghulam military corps from a few hundred to 15 000 highly trained cavalrymen. In response, a Ghilzai Afghan chieftain named Mir Wais Hotak revolted and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of the region, along with his army. The Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (c. 980–1037) was still regarded as one of the primary textbooks in medicine throughout most of the civilized world. Women from the provinces and slaves pierced their left nostrils with rings, but well-born Persian women would not do this. Despite the reforms, the Qizilbash would remain the strongest and most effective element within the military, accounting for more than half of its total strength. The exercises that they took part in were for keeping the body supple and sturdy and to acquire skills in handling of arms. The language chiefly used by the Safavid court and military establishment was Azerbaijani. Historical information. [117], Next in authority were the generals: the General of the Royal Troops (the Shahsevans), General of the Musketeers, General of the Ghulams and The Master of Artillery. The Chief architect of this colossal task of urban planning was Shaykh Bahai (Baha’ ad-Din al-`Amili), who focused the programme on two key features of Shah Abbas’s master plan: the Chahar Bagh avenue, flanked at either side by all the prominent institutions of the city, such as the residences of all foreign dignitaries. The works of al-Razi (865-92) (known to the West as Razes) were still used in European universities as standard textbooks of alchemy, pharmacology and pediatrics. But despite of a weak economy, a civil war and wars being fought on two fronts, Tahmasp had managed to maintain his position as the shah. In 1609–10, a war broke out between Kurdish tribes and the Safavid Empire. Introduction to the Safavid Dynasty: Rise and Empire. Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Persia as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon “checks and balances”, their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. SAFAVID EMPIRE Empire & Esmail Neighbors : Sunnie Ottomans & Uzbek which were on northeast not sides went to war with savfavid. The Ottoman Turks and Safavids fought over the fertile plains of Iraq for more than 150 years. [134] Caravanserais were designed especially to benefit poorer travelers, as they could stay there for as long as they wished, without payment for lodging. As Vladimir Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Qizilbash “were no party to the national Persian tradition”. Ismail followed the line of Iranian and Turkmen rulers prior to him by assumption of the title “Padishah-i-Iran”, previously held by Uzun Hasan and many other Iranian kings. endobj Junayd was killed during an incursion into the territories of the Shirvanshah and was succeeded by his son Haydar Safavi. Indeed, one of the greatest legacies of the Safavids is the architecture. Chardin was present at some feasts in Isfahan were there were more than fifty different kinds of fruit. Battle at Chaldiran (1514) Ottomans nearly destroyed the Safavid Empire but lacked resources, although they occupied the capital of Tabriz temporarily. Ismāil was known as a brave and charismatic youth, zealous with regards to his Shi’a faith, and believed himself to be of divine descent—practically worshipped by his Qizilbāshfollowers. 1 0 obj Although the expedition never managed to return to Iran, being shipwrecked on the journey around Africa, it marked an important new step in contacts between Iran and Europe and Europeans began to be fascinated by the Iranians and their culture—Shakespeare’s 1601–2 Twelfth Night, for example, makes two references (at II.5 and III.4) to ‘the Sophy’, then the English term for the Shahs of Iran. GENEALOGY—THE ANCESTORS OF THE SAFAVIDS AND ITS MULTI-CULTURAL IDENTITY, ALLIANCES TO THE EAST—THE MUGHAL EMPEROR AT THE SHAH’S COURT, DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN A TOTALITARIAN SOCIETY, THE ARMENIAN MERCHANTS AND THE TRADE OF SILK, THE ISFAHAN SCHOOL—ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY REVIVED, THE LANGUAGES OF THE COURT, MILITARY, ADMINISTRATION AND CULTURE, Kurdish stronghold of Dimdim was captured, Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliya fi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a,, Huṣayn Kīā Chalavī, the local ruler of Semnān, Shahsevans: these were 12,000 strong and built up from the small group of. [142], By the end of the 17th century, the Dutch had become dominant in the trade that went via the Persian Gulf, having won most trade agreements, and managed to strike deals before the British or French were able to. Mughal Empire lied on the lands of modern India, Nepal, and Bhutan. This trading route proved to be of vital importance, especially during times of war with the Ottomans. 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